Women in Programming: milestones, decline, progress, and remaining challenges 

The journey of Women in programming has been marked through History by exciting milestones followed by a deplorable decline, and more recently by positive progress although ongoing challenges remain. Let’s trace this back to the start. 

Historical Milestones

  • Early pioneers: Women played significant roles in the early days of computing. Figures like Ada Lovelace and Grace Hopper made groundbreaking contributions to programming, laying the foundation for future advancements. 
  • World War II and the rise of women programmers: During the war, women were actively recruited as “human computers” and played vital roles in programming military machines. This recognition led to an increase in women pursuing computer science degrees in the 1960s and 1970s. 


  • Stereotypes and biases: Although programming jobs and careers were originally considered suitable for women in the 60s-70s because they required qualities such as collaboration and meticulous attention to detail (qualities traditionally associated with women), societal stereotypes take a sharp turn in the 1980s as men are suddenly deemed to be more able for programming because it requires innate mathematical skills (qualities then associated with men). These biases have created barriers for women entering the field and have contributed to the gender imbalance that persists today. 
  • Lack of representation: Women remain underrepresented in technology companies, particularly in leadership roles. The absence of diverse role models and mentors can hinder women’s progress and limit their professional growth. 
  • Unequal opportunities: Women often face challenges in accessing equal opportunities for career advancement, promotions, and equal pay. Gender biases and workplace cultures that favour men can prevent women’s progress in programming. 

Recent progress

  • Increased awareness and advocacy: Efforts to address gender imbalance in programming are increasing. Organisations, conferences, and initiatives focused on promoting women in tech have emerged, encouraging dialogue and raising awareness about the importance of gender diversity. 
  • Coding education initiatives: Programs like Girls Who Code and coding boot camps are providing coding education and resources specifically targeted at girls and women. These initiatives aim to bridge the gender gap in programming skills and empower women to pursue careers in technology. 
  • Support networks and communities: Women-focused tech communities, such as Women in Tech and Women Who Code, offer support networks, mentorship opportunities, and platforms for women to connect and collaborate. These communities help promote inclusivity and provide resources for women to thrive in programming. 

Ongoing challenges

  • Implicit biases and discrimination: Deep-rooted biases and discrimination continue to limit women’s progress in programming. Stereotypes, gender pay gaps, and biased hiring practices persist in the tech industry, creating barriers for women’s advancement. 
  • Continued lack of representation in leadership: Women are still underrepresented in leadership positions within tech companies. This contributes to perpetuating a cycle of inequality and to limiting women’s influence in decision-making processes. 
  • Work-life balance and retention: Balancing work and personal life can be particularly challenging for women, in programming just like in other industries. The demands of the field, coupled with societal expectations and inadequate support systems, can lead to lower retention rates among women. 

The emancipation of women in programming has come a long way, but there is still much work to be done. By challenging biases, promoting inclusive policies, and providing equal opportunities, we can create a more equitable and diverse programming landscape that empowers women to thrive in technology careers.